Mavrud Variety

Mavrud Variety

The Mavrud grape is an old indigenous variety that has been grown on the territory of Bulgaria since ancient times. Mavrud is a late to very late ripening variety, it ripens in late September or early October. Mavrud is one of the parents of other local varieties such as Evmolpia and Buket, which have regained recognition and glory in recent years. The Mavrud variety is one of the best Bulgarian varieties for high quality red wine production.

Planted surface

The variety belongs to the Black Sea ecological-geographical group. Its area by 2019 is about 12,645 decares (1264 ha) and represents about 2% of all vine plantations in the country.

The Mavrud variety is also known as Mavrud (Romania), Mavroud (France), Mavroudi (Greece), Kaushansky (Moldova), Cachivela (Pomorie, Burgas - Bulgaria). It is planted mainly in Bulgaria, but is also found in Macedonia, Greece, Romania and Albania.

Mavrud's plantations in Bulgaria are mainly in Plovdiv and Pazardzhik districts in Central Bulgaria and less in Haskovo and Stara Zagora, on the Black Sea coast, the Danube plain (Montana, Vratsa, Pleven) and in the Struma Valley in South-Western Bulgaria.


Mavrud is a late to very late ripening variety, maturing in late September or early October. The duration of the period from budding to phenological maturity is about 176 days.

In the past it was grown on gobelet training system, but in modern viticulture the most commonly used training systems are single and double Guyot. The local viticulture expert Pavlov / according to Stoev, 1973 / considers that the best results in terms of yield and sugar content are achieved when growing the Mavrud variety with a stem height of 80 cm and a planting density of 2 - 2.5 m / 1.25 - 1.50 m /.

Mavrud is not particularly prone to millerandage, is not resistant to downy and powdery mildew, but is relatively resistant to gray rot. It is sensitive to low winter temperatures and drought, so the vines should be planted on slopes with excellent air drainage and southern exposure.

The most suitable soils for growing the Mavrud variety are those with medium to heavy sandy-clay composition, such as Colluvial (deluvial, proluvial and deluvial-proluvial) carbonates; cinnamon forest soils, slightly leached, formed on colluvium containing carbonates.

The petiole of the leaf is large, its length is superior to its width, strongly cut and pentagonal. The upper surface is slightly wrinkled, covered with a weak cobweb-like moss, and the lower is strongly fuzzy/bristly. The cluster is medium-sized, conical with wings, semi-compact to compact. The berry is medium to small, spherical.

Clones and phenotypes

The Mavrud variety has many clones and phenotypes. M. Kondarev described the phenotypes Mavrud with large grains, Mavrud with small grains, Mavrud with flattened grains and Izrezliv Mavrud. He created the Mavrud 1 clone and the Mavrud 2 clone, which differ from the population of the variety mainly by the larger berries and bunches and the relatively lower fertility. The average weight of grape bunch in the Mavrud 1 clone is 396 g, and in Mavrud 2 - 354 g. The average berry weight was 2.00 g and 1.85 g, respectively.

The clones Mavrud 101, Mavrud 108, Mavrud 113 and Mavrud 116 are documented and researched by the Institute of Vine and Wine in Pleven and differ from the main population of the variety in shape, structure and size of the bunches, berries and the number of seeds in one berry. Mavrud 108 has the most valuable economic indicators (Dimitrov et al., 1957). There is also a known bud variation of this variety - Mavrud gray and Mavrud white, created by artificial mutagenesis, which differ only in the color of the skins of the berries and the quality of the wine.

Mavrud gray and Mavrud white are not common in our country, due to their low oenological characteristics, compared to Western European varieties - Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Traminer pink. They can be grown in separate microdistricts to increase the variety of local, specific, regional wines. Since they are studied in a warm region - around Plovdiv, which is characterized by a high heat summation (3800-39000C), it is possible when growing them in a suitable for the production of white wines terroir with a lower temperature summation (3500-37000C) to develop their oenological potential even better.

The Mavrud grape is also one of the parents of other local varieties such as Evmolpia and Buket, which have regained their recognition and glory in recent years.

The wines from Mavrud

Mavrud is one of the best local varieties for producing high quality red wines. Mavrud grapes are used exclusively for the production of dry red wine and in the case of ground cultivation, dense plantation, proper pruning and moderate loading, exceptional dessert wines can be obtained too.

Mavrud is one of the most highly regarded Bulgarian varieties for production of dark red dry wines. The Mavrud wines develop their qualities after 2-3 years of aging and have an excellent ageing potential . They are alcoholic, intensely colored, extractive, with moderately high acidity, optimal content of phenolic substances and harmonious taste.

Source of information: Professor Venelin Roychev DSc, Agricultural University - Plovdiv

Professor Roychev develops Bulgaria's first "Monograph of the Mavrud variety".